GATS-Forderungen der USA im Bildungsbereich
Druckversion



Die GATS-Forderungen für den Bildungsbereich, die von den USA an andere WTO-Mitglieder
gestellt wurden, sind durchgesickert. Wie zu erwarten war, werden darin die weitestgehende
Liberalisierung des Sektors und den Abbau innerstaatlicher Regelungen gefordert.

Wir dokumentieren an dieser Stelle das bekannt gewordene Papier:

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US DEMANDS HIGHER EDUCATION IN GATS NEGOTIATIONS

Below is the formal request the USA is asking for under Education and
Training Services. The impact would be to open up these services where they
are still publicly delivered and to lock in permanently privatization in
countries that have liberalized under IMF/World Bank conditionality. Please
note that under full commitments, governments must give subsidies to foreign
education corporations on the same basis as they do to local, public
institutions.

In all likelihood, the US is making the same request under the FTAA services
negotiations.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING SERVICES
(HIGHER EDUCATION, ADULT EDUCATION AND OTHER)

Definition

Higher education includes all tertiary education (i.e., education beyond
secondary education), including degree courses taken for college or
university credits or non-degree courses taken for personal edification or
pleasure or to upgrade work-related skills. Such education and training
services can be provided in institutional settings, such as universities or
schools, or outside of traditional settings, including workplaces, homes, or
elsewhere.

The U.S. requests on education also include adult education and "other"
education, as well as training services and educational testing services.
Training services are very similar to education services, but training
courses are generally less theoretical and more job-related than academic
courses, often requiring hands-on operation of tools, equipment and certain
devices. Educational testing services include designing and administering
tests, as well as evaluating results. These services are a fundamental and
essential part of the learning process, used to evaluate the student as well
as the course material.

Checklist:

In GATS W/120, higher education is classified in section 5C, adult education
in section 5D and "other" education in section 5E. Training services are
classifiable in the same categories. In CPC, education and training
services are classifiable in sections 923, 924, and 929. Educational
testing services may be covered as business services in technical testing
(W/120 1Fe), as well as under educational services. CPC 86769 covers
"other" testing services.

Market Access and National Treatment

Members who have not already done so are requested to provide full
commitments for market access and national treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for
higher education and training services (as defined above), for adult
education, and for "other" education. Consistent with the commitments,
countries remain free to review and assess higher education and training, by
governmental or non-governmental means, and to cooperate with other
countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Special Requests of Individual Countries:

Argentina: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Brazil: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Canada: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Chile: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

China: Remove ban on education services provided by foreign companies and
organizations via satellite networks. Remove requirements for foreign
educational institutions to partner with Chinese universities. Remove ban
on for-profit operations in education and training services. Relax other
operational limits and restrictions on geographic scope of activities.
Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment in modes
1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult education,
and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent with the
commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher education and
training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to cooperate with
other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Chinese Taipei: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education. Remove nationality requirements for certain executives and
directors of educational institutions.

Costa Rica: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Czech Republic: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Egypt: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.
Remove ownership limitations on joint ventures with local partners.

El Salvador: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education. Remove prohibition on joint ventures with local partners.

EU Member States: Assure that EU commitments on education apply to all
Member States. Undertake further commitments to provide market access and
national treatment for testing services. Consistent with the commitments,
countries remain free to review and assess higher education and training, by
governmental or non-governmental means, and to cooperate with other
countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.
EU-Greece: Remove restriction that the granting of degrees is limited to
Greek institutions only. Recognize degrees issued by accredited
institutions of higher education (including those issued by branch campuses
of accredited institutions); and adopt a policy of transparency in
government licensing and accrediting policy with respect to higher education
and training.
EU-Italy: Remove requirement in Italy that foreign entities teach only
non-national students.
EU-Ireland: Remove quantitative limitation of educational institutions in
Ireland.
EU-Spain: Adopt a policy of transparency in government licensing and
accrediting policy with respect to higher education and training.
EU-Sweden: Adopt a policy of transparency in government licensing and
accrediting policy with respect to higher education and training.

Hong Kong-China: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Hungary: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

India: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.
Remove ownership limitations on joint ventures with local partners.

Indonesia: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Israel: Recognize degrees issued by accredited institutions of higher
education (including those issued by branch campuses of accredited
institutions); and adopt a policy of transparency in government licensing
and accrediting policy with respect to higher education and training.
Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment in modes
1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult education,
and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent with the
commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher education and
training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to cooperate with
other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Japan: Recognize degrees issued by accredited institutions of higher
education (including those issued by branch campuses of accredited
institutions); and adopt a policy of transparency in government licensing
and accrediting policy with respect to higher education and training.
Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment in modes
1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult education,
and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent with the
commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher education and
training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to cooperate with
other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Korea: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Malaysia: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Mexico: Remove ownership limitations on joint ventures with local partners.
Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment in modes
1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult education,
and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent with the
commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher education and
training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to cooperate with
other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Morocco: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Pakistan: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Philippines: Remove ownership limitations on joint ventures with local
partners. Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Poland: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Singapore: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

South Africa: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education. Remove burdensome requirements, including non-transparent needs
tests, applicable to foreign universities operating, or seeking to operate,
in South Africa.

Thailand: remove ownership limitations on joint ventures with local
partners. Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Tunisia: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Turkey: Remove requirement that foreign entities teach only non-national
students. Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.

Uruguay: Undertake full commitments for market access and national treatment
in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services, for adult
education, and for "other" education, and for testing services. Consistent
with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess higher
education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means, and to
cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality education.

Venezuela: Undertake full commitments for market access and national
treatment in modes 1,2, and 3 for higher education and training services,
for adult education, and for "other" education, and for testing services.
Consistent with the commitments, countries remain free to review and assess
higher education and training, by governmental or non-governmental means,
and to cooperate with other countries, for purposes of assuring quality
education.




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